See the bottom of his page as well, for hinds about the final exam
Machiavelli outline, chapters 1-9
Ch 1 Kinds of principalities
a) altogether new:
b) Hereditary (ch. 2)
(1). Accustomed to blood line of prince, easy to govern
(2). added to hereditary state: danger that subjects may oppose
ruler (ch. 3):
(a). some will be offended by your rule
(b). others will drift away when dissatisfied
(c). returning ruler will govern more firmly and retain power
(d). cultural differences:
(i). new acquisition uses same language as ruler: easily held
1. must wipe out previous rulers
2. don't change laws or taxes
(ii). new acquisition uses different language from ruler's
1. should live there in person
a. catch disorders at inception
b. prevent corrupt rule by subordinates
2. or better, send colonies
a. this is cheap
b. not offensive to many
i. carress or
ii. eliminate subjects
3. or men at arms
a. more costly
b. offends locals
4. Must befriend neighbors
5. And weaken powerful
6. And prevent entrance of powerful foreigner brought in by
a. Ambition or
7. Powerful foreigners gain power fast
8. Examples of success and failure in this situation:
a. Success: Romans in province of Greece.
b. Failure: France
i. Eliminates the lesser powers
ii. Increases power of a power
in Italy (Pope Alexander)
iii. Brought in powerful foreigner (King of Spain)
iv. Did not come to live there (in Milan)
v. Did not colonize.
(3). Nature of previous government
(a). accustomed to living under a prince
(b) accustomed to freedom (ch. 5)
(i). ruin them: only secure way to control a
(ii). go to live there personally
(iii). keep them friendly by:
1. letting them live by their own laws
2. taking tribute
3. creating an oligarchy
(1). How acquired
(a). Means of acquisition:
(i). acquired with one's own arms (ch 6):
1. virtue of ruler is crucial to ease of maintenance: Moses, Cyrus
2. Live there
3. Rule hard to gain, easy to maintain
a. armed prophets succeed, unarmed fail: Moses, Savonarola
(ii). with others' arms ) (ch. 7): rule easy to gain, hard to maintai
1. hard to maintain because ruler may not have virtue
2. state has no roots: this was Cesare Borgia's problem. Alexander VI foresaw opposition from Milan, Venice, Orsini, Colonna. Cesare seizes Romagna, defeats Colonna, decides to depend only on his own virtue when recognizes obstacles of:
a. disloyal followers (Orsini and Vitelli):
i. wins over their adherents with money and position
ii. used French to protect himself
iii. turns to deceitful reconciliation: Sinigaglia
iv. becomes duke of Urbino
v. Pacifies and "corrects" Romagna
vi. Uses Remirro de Orco, then kills him
vii. Falls sick, October-December 1503: fortune
viii. Had great spirit and high intention
ix. Accepted the wrong papal candidate: della Rovere, Julius II
b. French opposition
(b). Manner of acquisition:
(i). by fortune (money or favor)
(ii). by virtue
(iii). through crime: (ch. 8) Agathocles, Oliverotto da Fermo
1. commit crimes all at once
2. avoid having to change
(iv). with support of fellow citizens (ch 9): must make them need one
1. the people: easier to satisfy than the great.
2. the great: harder to maintain power, cannot command one's equals
(2). Structure of rule (ch. 4):
(a). Prince and servants (Turkey, Persia under Alexander) more secure than
(b). Prince and barons (France)
The Prince: Items to have in mind as you review for the final exam
Note how Machiavelli structures this analysis. He is interested only in states ruled by princes: what other sort of state does this leave out?
What steps should a new ruler take to consolidate his power?
What mistakes did Louis XII of France commit when invading Italy?
What sorts of states are comparatively easy to take over? Why? In what states is it easiest to maintain power?
Describe the conditions under which one can seize power without the aid of fortune.
Summarize the career of Cesare Borgia.
You should be able to list the important moments in the careers of Agathocles and Oliverotto
What steps does Machiavelli recommend for the maintenance of control in a newly seized state?
What “vices” are appropriate in a leader?
What is Machiavelli’s opinion of generosity, kindness and honesty in a ruler?
You should be able to summarize what Machiavelli has to say about fortuna
What is the purpose of leadership, as expressed in this chapter?
Names to remember:
Cesare Borgia, Moses, Savonarola, Louis XII, Alexander VI, Oliverotto da Fermo, Agathocles of Syracuse, Remirro da Orco, the lion and the fox, the beast and the man, virt¶, fortuna